The letter ghayn

The letter ghayn is a part of the Arabic alphabet. Here you will learn how to pronounce and write ghayn.

How ghayn is pronounced

The Arabic letter ghayn is pronounced gh as a French r, or as the r used in south of Sweden.

In the phonetic alphabet, the pronunciation of ghayn is written [ɣ]. On this website, I write the pronunciation gh.

How ghayn is written

The letter ghayn has four shapes: isolated, initial, medial and final.

finalmedialinitialisolerad
ـﻎـﻐـﻏـ

Which of the shapes to use depends on the letter's position in the word and surrounding letters. Do not forget that Arabic is written from right to left.

The letter ghayn is dual joining. That means that it wants to connect to both right and left. If there is a letter before, that also is dual joining, then ghayn will connect with it. If there is a letter after, then ghayn will connect with it. How to write with Arabic dual joining letters.

ghayn isolerad form

This is how the Arabic letter ghayn is written in its isolerad form:

This form is used in the following situations:

ghayn alone

When ghayn stands by itself, the isolated form is used.

ghayn in the end after right joining letter

When ghayn is the last letter of a word and comes after a right joining letter, the isolated form is used. It is free to the right since the letter before it does not connect to the left. It is also free to the left since there is no letter after.

ghayn initial form

This is how the Arabic letter ghayn is written in its initial form:

ﻏـ

This form is used in the following situations:

ghayn in the beginning of words

When ghayn is the first letter of a word, the initial form is used. It is free to the right and has a tail to the left to connect with the letter after it.

ghayn in the middle after right joining letter

When ghayn is in the middle of a word and follows a right joining letter, the initial form is used. It is free to the right since the letter before it does not connect to the left, and it has a tail to the left to connect with the letter after.

ghayn medial form

This is how the Arabic letter ghayn is written in its medial form:

ـﻐـ

This form is used in the following situation:

ghayn in the middle of words

When ghayn is in the middle of a word, e.g. when ghayn is neither the first nor the last letter, the medial form is often used. It has tails in both directions to connect with both the letter before it and the letter after it.

ghayn final form

This is how the Arabic letter ghayn is written in its final form:

ـﻎ

This form is used in the following situation:

ghayn in the end of words

When ghayn is the last letter of a word, the final form is often used. It has a tail to the right to connect with the letter before it, and it is free to the left since there is no letter after.

Conclusion: how ghayn is written

The letter ghayn has four forms.
The isolated form is used when ghayn stands by itself and in the end of words (after a right joining letter). In other words: When there is no letter before that wants to connect and there is no letter after.
The initial form ﻏـ is used in the beginning of words and in the middle of words (if the letter before is right joining). In other words: When there is no letter before that wants to connect and there is a letter after.
The medial form ـﻐـ is used in the middle of words (if the letter before is not right joining). In other words: When there is a letter before that wants to connect and there is a letter after.
The final form ـﻎ is used in the end of words (if the letter before is not right joining). In other words: When there is a letter before that wants to connect and there is no letter after.

That's it!
The rules you have learned can be applied to all Arabic dual joining letters, which is most of them.

ghayn is a moon letter

You get the definite form of a word by putting the definite article al in front of it.

اَل

The Arabic letter ghayn is a moon letter. That means that the definite article is pronounced al and nothing else. The letters that are not moon letters are called sun letters, and they are assimilated with the definite article al.

For example the Arabic word for except is pronounced ghayr and written ﻏَﻴﺮ. In definite form, it is pronounced alghayr and written اَل‍ﻏَﻴﺮ.

Read more about definite form

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