dal

د

The Arabic letter dal has two different forms.

finalisolated
ـدد

In the isolated form, the letter dal is not joined with any other letter.

د

When you show the letter dal on its own, you use the isolated form.

When dal is the first letter of a word, the isolated form is also used.

path
darb
دَرب
cock
diik
دِيك
stair
daraj
دَرَج

In the final form, the letter dal is joined to the right.

ـد

When dal is the last letter of a word, you use the final form in most cases.

body
jasad
جَسَد
promise
wa3d
وَعد
period
3ahd
عَهد

When dal is not the first and not the last but somewhere in the middle of a word, the final form is also used in most cases.

goal
hadaf
هَدَف
eyelash
hudb
هُدب
chest
Sadr
صَدر

Let's talk about the concept of joining. Arabic letters are not generally written one by one. Instead, the letters in a word are joined together like handwriting. This makes the writing quite beautiful.

Most letters in the Arabic alphabet are dual joining. This means that they want to join both with the letter before and the letter after. But the letter dal and some other letters, are right joining.

Right joining means that the letter only wants to join with the letter to the right (which is the letter before, since Arabic is writen from right to left).

When the letter dal comes after a letter that is also right joining, you always use the isolated form.

د

Therefore: when dal is the last letter of a word, and follows a right joining letter, you use the isolated form.

monkey
qird
قِرد
provisions
zaad
زَاد

Therefore: when dal is in the middle of a word, and follows a right joining letter, you use the isolated form.

Now you know that:

The rules you just learned can be applied to all Arabic letters with right joining.

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