Here are the words we learned in the lesson about gender and number.
We can combine them to make a sentence.
It's almost perfect... We just need to add the case endings.
Now it's grammatically perfect. It's a sentence without verbs! And we can even switch the words to make another sentence.
We don't even need two different words, we can use the same word twice in a sentence.
How do you say "the beautiful is beautiful" in Arabic?
The sentences we just built are nominal sentences. A nominal sentence is a sentence without any verb.
In English we can't really make nominal sentences. You can see that the translations are verbal sentences because they contain the verb "to be". Arabic does not have a verb for "to be" and does not need it. Therefore, nominal sentences are very common in Arabic.
Later, we are going to look at other types of nominal sentences. But for now we will focus on nominal sentences that contains only substantives and/or adjectives. That type of nominal sentence follow these rules:
We will now go through the rules one by one, and look at some examples.
A nominal sentence have two parts. Let's call them the "definite part" and the "indefinite part". Each part consists of one or more words. For example we can use the two same words to make a nominal sentence with four words.
There are four words in this sentence but only two parts. The definite part is "alwaalidu aljamiilu" which means "the beautiful father". The indefinite part is "waalidun jamiilun" which means "a beautiful father".
Let's try a less redundant sentence. We'll introduce a new word, the Arabic word for lazy, to get some variation:
How do you say "the lazy father is beautiful" in Arabic?
All the sentences we have looked at so far have been about a father, and therefore all the words have been in masculine singular. But there are two genders in Arabic (feminine and masculine) and three numers (singular, dual and plural) so now it's time for some variation.
In the lesson about gender and number we learned the many Arabic words in feminine singular ends with a.
Now let's combine the words and say "the mother is beautiful" in Arabic.
You can see that both the definite part ("alwaalidatu") and the indefinite part ("jamiilatun") are in feminine singular.
In the lesson about gender and number we also learned that words in feminine plural ends in "aat" if they have regular plural. With that in mind, we can say "the mothers are beautiful" in Arabic.
How do you say "the beautiful mother is lazy" in arabic?
How do you say "the lazy mother is beautiful" in arabic?
The first part of the nominal sentence can contain one or many words, as long as the part as a whole is in definite form.
In the lesson about definite form we learned that the marker for definite form looks like this:
We learned that the marker is often pronounced "al". And we learned that by adding the marker in the beginning of a substantive or adjective, we turn it into definite form.
We have seen examples of where the first part of the nominal sentence is one word in definite form. Like the first example, where the first part is "alwaalidu" (the father):
We have also seen examples of where the first part of the nominal sentence is a a substantive described by an adjective:
In that sentence the first part is "alwaalidu aljamiilu" (the beautiful father). Note that the adjective comes after the substantive in Arabic.
We can see that both the substantive and the adjective in the first part should be in definite form. But what if we want the first part to be two or many substantives? Then we need to insert the conjunction "and" between them:
In that example, the first part is "alwaalidu wa alwaalidatu" (the father and the mother). The second part is "jamiilani" which is the indefinite and dual form of "jamiil" (beautiful).
If the first part should be a substantive described by two or many adjectives, we need to insert "and" between the adjectives.
In that sentence, the first part is "alwaalidu aljamiilu waalkasuulu" (the beautiful and lazy father). Note that the both adjectives come after the substative in Arabic.
Pronouns like "I", "you", "she" and "he" are also considered to be in definite form. That means they can also begin a nominal sentence. Nominal sentences that consist of a pronoun plus a substantive is very common and useful in Arabic.
We can use the Arabic pronoun for "I" as an example.
If you are a man and want to say that you are beautiful, you say:
If you are a woman and want to say that you are beautiful, you say:
How do you say "me and the father are beautiful" in Arabic.
For the first part: Use the word "I", the conjunction "and" and the word for father.
For the second part: Since it is should describe two people, we need the dual form for "beautiful". In a earler sentence we learned that it is "jamiilaani".
The second part of the nominal sentence can contain one or many words, as long as the part as a whole is indefinite.
We have seen examples of where the second part is one word in indefinite form, like this one:
We have also seen sentences of where the second part is a substantive and described by an adjective. But let's make a new one:
In that sentence the second part is "waalidun kasuulun" (lazy father). Both words are in indefinite form. Note that the adjective comes after the substantive in Arabic.
We can modify the second part of that sentence a bit by inserting the conjuction "and" between the substantive and the adjective:
Now the second part is "waalidun wa kasuulun" (father and lazy), we can extend that part by adding another "and" and another word:
Now the second part is "waalidun wa kasuulun wa jamiilun" (father, lazy and beautiful). If we just have more words, we can extend that part forever.
How do you say "the beautiful is a lazy and beautiful father" in Arabic?
Modify the latest sentence by removing one of the conjunctions "and".
The second part of the nominal sentence can also be a phrase with a preposition. Prepositions are words like "in", "at" and "with". Let's start by looking at a preposition.
Now let's make a nominal sentence.
The first part of the nominal sentence is "alwaalidu" (the father) and the second part is "ma3a alwaalidati" (with the mother) which is our preposition phrase.
Words after prepositions should be in genitive case, it is therefore the word for mother, "alwaalidati" ends in "i" and not "u".
We can easily reverse the parents and make another nominal sentence:
Now the second part of the nominal sentence is the preposition phrase "ma3a alwaalidi" (with the father).
How do you say "I am with the beautiful" in Arabic?
If the beautiful is a male, you say:
And if the beautiful is a female, you say: